PC-12 nuclear extract (Hypoxia)
Active Motif's PC-12 nuclear extract (Hypoxia) was prepared from cell cultures of the rat adrenal pheochromocytoma PC-12 cell line. This cell line originated from a catecholamine-secreting tumor (pheochromocytoma) of the rat adrenal medulla. In addition to catecholamine, PC-12 cells also produce neurotransmitters. PC-12 cells are frequently used as a model system for neuronal differentiation because of their ability to differentiate into a sympathetic neuronal phenotype in response to nerve growth factor, fibroblast growth factor and, under certain conditions, epidermal growth factor. Hypoxia was induced by subjecting PC-12 cells to oxygen deprivation prior to harvesting. Hypoxia is a significant contributor to various developmental and pathophysiological processes. These include cell differentiation, wound healing, angiogenesis and various human diseases, including ischemia, cancer, heart disease pulmonary disease, and inflammation. Hypoxic conditions induce an increase in HIF-1, a transcription factor involved in mammalian oxygen homeostasis. This leads to upregulation of transcription of genes that promote cell survival in low-oxygen conditions, mainly the PI3K/Akt pathway that is important for cell survival. In addition, hypoxia induces proliferation and differentiation of various differentiating cell types, particularly those related to the neural system and vasculogenesis. Hypoxic PC-12 cells serve as an ideal model system for studying the regulation of diverse neuronal processes including proliferation, differentiation, and synaptogenesis in relation to neuronal development or dysfunction resulting from oxygen deprivation, cancer, neurological disorders, or injury.