HeLa acid extract (Etoposide treated)
Active Motif's HeLa acid extract (Etoposide treated) was prepared under acidic conditions from cells harvested from a cell culture of the HeLa human epithelial carcinoma cell line that was treated with etoposide. Acid extraction is performed under conditions that are optimized for solubility of histone proteins. Etoposide is a chemotherapeutic agent that acts to inhibit the activity of topoisomerase II, resulting in errors in DNA synthesis that eventually lead to G2 phase arrest and cell death. The topoisomerase II enzyme functions to cleave and unwind the strands of the DNA helix to promote chromosomal disentanglement. Once the DNA strands are unwound, the cut ends are religated. Etoposide forms a ternary complex with DNA and topoisomerase II that prevents religation of the DNA strands, causing DNA damage. The antineoplastic effect of etoposide results from the inefficiency of cancer cells, in comparison to healthy cells, to repair the DNA damage. Thus, the effects of the DNA damage produced by etoposide are compounded and eventually lead to programmed cell death in cancer cells. The HeLa cell line was originally derived from cells obtained in 1951 from Henrietta Lacks, a cervical cancer patient who eventually died from her cancer. The HeLa cell line is one of the oldest and most commonly utilized immortal cell lines in scientific research. These cells are highly prolific and easily sustainable, allowing for flexibility in their application in various fields of scientific research, including cancer biology, virology, and human disease. To date, over 60,000 publications across various disciplines have referenced the use of HeLa cells.