P19 nuclear extract
Active Motif's P19 nuclear extract was prepared from a cell culture of the murine teratocarcinoma P19 cell line. The P19 cell line was originally derived from an experimental embryonic carcinoma induced in a C3H/He strain mouse. Unlike benign teratomas, malignant teratocarcinomas contain populations of undifferentiated stem cells and are characterized by the presence of various differentiated tissues, including teeth, hair and limbs. P19 cells embryonic carcinoma (EC) cells are multipotent and are unique in that they have the ability to change from a malignant to a non-malignant phenotype by the process of cellular differentiation. P19 cells can be induced to differentiate into cell types of all three germ layers. Application of DMSO induces differentiation of P19 embryoid bodies into cardiac and skeletal muscle phenotypes, while retinoic acid treatment induces differentiation into neuronal and glial phenotypes. The P19 cell line is most commonly used in research as a model for cellular differentiation and in studies of physiology and developmental defects.